FOURTH TO SIXTH GRADE LEarning Expectations
What Students Should Know In English Language Arts (ELA)
Fourth Grade
Foundational Skills · Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. · Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. · Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. · Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. · Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. · Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. Informational Text · Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. · Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. · Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. · Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. · Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. · Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. · Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. Literature · Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. · Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. · Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). · Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. Writing · Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. · Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. · Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. · Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Speaking and Listening · Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. |
Fifth Grade
Students should be able to read grade-level text fluently and accurately and master foundational reading skills in preparation for grades six and beyond. Students should be able to analyze how structure, point of view, visual elements, and figurative language contribute to the meaning or tone of text. Students in fifth grade focus on active engagement with text. They are required to analyze, identify, define, explain, integrate, evaluate, compare, contrast, and cite supportive evidence—developing and building upon those skills that were required in fourth grade. Students are expected to compare, contrast, and integrate information from two or more texts; determined the theme, and use details and supporting evidence from the text to draw conclusions. Students should be able to use technology to gather information for research projects and interact or collaborate with others. In fifth grade, students should be able to effectively engage in collaborative discussions, identify and analyze logical fallacies in speakers’ presentations or from media sources, and learn to plan and deliver presentations. Students should be able to incorporate the conventions of standard English grammar and usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling to support their speaking and writing. |
Sixth Grade
Students should know how to read and analyze a wide range of literature from different times and cultures, with an increasing emphasis on analyzing informational text on grade- level topics. Students should know how to read complex narrative and informational texts. Students will read two or more texts on a topic and use a variety of comprehension strategies to compare, contrast, and integrate information from the texts. Students in sixth grade focus on active engagement with text. They are required to analyze, identify, define, explain, integrate, evaluate, compare, contrast, and cite supportive evidence—developing and building upon those skills that were required in fifth grade. Students should know how to analyze how structure, point of view, visual elements, and figurative language contribute to the meaning or tone of texts. As their analysis skills deepen, students should be able to identify key individual events and details and use them as evidence to support their analysis and to distinguish claims that are supported by an author from those that are not. Students should be able to compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with another interpretation. Students should be able to use academic language and domain-specific vocabulary through their reading and use it in their writing and speaking. Students should be able to write using evidence from a variety of sources to support their purpose or conclusion. Students should be able to revise, edit, and rewrite their compositions and learn to try new approaches and use technology to improve their writing product. Students conduct research projects that provide them with practice in gathering information, using print and digital sources, and paraphrasing or summarizing information. Students should be able to engage effectively in collaborative discussions with diverse partners and in different groupings on sixth-grade topics and texts. Students should be able to identify and analyze logical fallacies in speakers’ presentations or from media sources. They learn to present an argument and support it with a logical sequence of evidence. They also learn to use expression and nonverbal elements for effect and to engage the audience. To support their writing and speaking, students must be able to write using conventions of standard English grammar and usage, capitalization, spelling, and punctuation, such as using commas to set off parenthetical clauses. Students should be able to distinguish between words with similar meanings and to use common affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of words. They also use the relationships between certain words (e.g., cause/effect or part/whole) to help understand each word. |
What Students Should Know In Mathematics
Fourth Grade
Students need to know how to interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. Students need to know how to multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 Students need to solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. Students need to find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.. Students need to know how to generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. Students need to recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. Students need to read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. Students need to use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. Students need to fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. Students need to multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. Students need to find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. Students need to understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. Students need to decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. Students need to add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Students need to solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. |
Fifth Grade
Understand the place value system Understand estimation (rounding) Operations of whole numbers, decimals, and fractions Recognize relationships between fractions, decimals, and percents Solve problems that involve brackets, braces, and parentheses Recognize patters of numbers Solve one-step equations Calculate perimeter, area, and volume of geometric shapes Classify geometric figures and terms Convert units of measurements and determine appropriate measurement tools *problem solving strategies of real world math problems will be incorporated into ALL skills |
Sixth Grade
Understand integers and calculate integer operations Understand divisibility, prime and composite numbers, and factors Understand equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, improper fractions, and etc. Organize, display, and interpret data Use ratios, proportions, and percents to solve problems Calculate volume and surface area of geometric shapes Understand and use probability to solve problems Graph translations, reflections, and rotations and shrink and stretch figures Create, solve, write, and graph functions and function tables Solve equations involving whole numbers, fractions, and decimals *problem solving strategies of real world math problems will be incorporated into ALL skills |